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Electricity System Transition

Electric System Transformation

Valuation and Ratemaking

As electricity demand has declined, use of distributed energy resources has expanded, and new technologies are increasingly providing ancillary services to the grid. Within this changing landscape, public utility commissions and stakeholders are exploring novel approaches to valuing and compensating customers, solution providers, and utilities for grid services. NARUC has supported a variety of initiatives aimed at plotting new courses for consistently and transparently determining the values of different resource investment options, in coordination with the NARUC Staff Subcommittee on Rate Design.

One category of evolving valuation and ratemaking approaches is often referred to as utility business model changes. NARUC operates a dynamic simulation exercise, called the MegaModel game, to support members’ experience with and understanding of cost-of-service and performance-based regulation (PBR). NARUC also facilitates a PBR state working group to enable commissioners and commission staff to explore the degree to which PBR can be a valuable tool for balancing the public interest with the financial requirements of utilities. These NARUC CPI activities are in addition to explaining fundamental financial concepts such as rate of return calculations.

  • Webinar: Establishing Metrics April 14, 2022
    Defining performance and considerations for establishing jurisdiction-specific metrics including peak load reduction, third-party resource deployment, interconnection, data access, reliability and resilience, energy efficiency.

    Moderator: Hon. CJ Manthe, Nevada

    Ryan Katofsky, Advanced Energy Economy
    Rachel Gold, Rocky Mountain Institute
    Doug Scott, Great Plains Institute

    View speaker presentations
    View recording

  • Webinar: Regulators' Financial Toolbox: Resilience Technologies August 25, 2021
    The Regulator’s Financial Toolbox series examines regulatory issues where technology meets bookkeeping. In this 90 minute webinar, speakers will address technology, economic, and accounting considerations for resilience technologies. This webinar will explain current resilience technologies, utilities benefits, and regulatory considerations such as useful life, inclusion in rate base, and other decision-making information.

    Moderator: Commissioner Carrie Zalewski, Illinois Commerce Commission

    Jennifer Kallay (Synapse Energy)
    Dr. Robert "Bobby" Jeffers (Sandia National Labs)
    Leuwam Tesfai (California Public Utility Commission)
    Julio Romero Aguero, Quanta Technology

    View speaker biographies and presentations
    View recording
    View Summary

  • Webinar: August 10 Regulator's Financial Toolbox: Communications Networks
    The Regulators’ Financial Toolbox series is where technology meets bookkeeping. On the Communications Networks Toolbox webinar, regulators will hear multiple perspectives on how communications networks work; what is unique about distribution system and grid edge communications vis a vis the distribution system and bulk power system communications; what their benefits are to the electricity system; and considerations specifically for regulators. Like many things, the perfect communications solution will be up to the jurisdiction, but this webinar will provide a framework for making decisions and help regulators be prepared to engage with utilities on this thorny issue.

    Moderator: Gladys Brown-Dutrieuille, Pennsylvania PUC

    Andrew Bordine (Anterix)
    Paul De Martini (Newport Consulting Group)
    Wendell Reimer (Xcel Energy)
    Jonathan Schrag (Taconic Advisory Services, LLC)

    View speaker biographies and presentations
    View recording
    View summary

  • Webinar: Performance Incentive Mechanisms (PIMs) for Resilience June 24, 2021
    Performance-Based Regulation State Working Group: Performance Incentive Mechanisms for Resilience Ultimately, for distribution company regulators, the desired outcomes for increased resiliency is avoided loss of load while simultaneously lowering infrastructure costs. A modern efficient system will provide a high quality of service without overpaying for it. Additionally, regulators must consider who ultimately gains from resilience benefits and who ultimately pays for those benefits. How may a regulator incentive a utility to maximize the value of resiliency gains via a PIM? In March, the group met for a webinar on PIMs 101 and in April, Resilience Metrics. This webinar will apply what we heard in the previous sessions to PIMs for resilience.

    Moderator: Commissioner Michael T. Richard, Maryland Public Service Commission

    Mark Lowry, Pacific Economics
    David Littell, Regulator Assistance Project
    Commissioner Lillian Mateo Santos, Puerto Rico Energy Board

    View speaker biographies and presentations
    View Recording

  • Webinar: Resilience Metrics April 16, 2021 The purpose of this webinar is to orient the PBRSWG with resilience metrics in preparation for a meeting on PIMs for resilience. This webinar will discuss what metrics are in use today, but will also explore how to think about constructing metrics adequate for your state and utility, and social, economic, and national security dynamics.

    Hon. Charlotte Mitchell (North Carolina Utilities Commission) moderated a panel of experts, including Joe Eto (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Bill Chiu (SCE/Chair of IEEE Task Force on Resilience Framework, Methods, and Metrics for the Electricity Sector), and Bobby Jeffers (Sandia National Laboratory). Background materials include the IEEE Resilience Framework, Methods, and Metrics for the Electricity Sector white paper.

    View presentation.
    View Recording: Part 1 with Joe Eto and Bobby Jeffers and Part 2 with Bill Chiu)

  • Webinar: Performance Incentive Mechanisms 101 March 12, 2021. The NARUC CPI PBR State Working Group met to discuss performance incentive mechanisms. Chair Dan Scripps of Michigan moderated a discussion with Mike O’Boyle (Energy Innovation), Grace Relf (Hawaii Commission), Minnesota Assistant Attorney General Ian Dobson, and Pete Cappers (Berkeley Labs).

    View presentation.
    View Recording.

  • DOE: Pumped Storage Hydropower Valuation Guidebook – A Cost-Benefit and Decision Analysis Valuation Framework The objective of this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Water Power Technologies Office (WPTO), was to advance the state of the art in assessing the value of PSH plants and their contributions to the power system. The specific objective was to develop a detailed step-by-step valuation guidance that PSH developers, plant owners or operators, and other stakeholders can use to assess the value of existing or potential new PSH plants and their services.

    PSH Valuation Guidebook
    Valuation Approach
    Intended Audience
    Case Studies
    Project Team
    Download the full report

  • Webinar: Regulator’s Financial Toolbox: Advanced Metering Infrastructure March 2, 2021
    Regulator’s Financial Toolbox Series examines regulatory issues where technology meets bookkeeping. In this 90-minute webinar, speakers will address technology, uses, costs and benefits, and what are the future opportunities for advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). This webinar will explain what AMI is and does, what are examples of the benefits of AMI, its role in enabling a more resilient system, what are regulatory considerations for AMI, and what is the future for AMI.   This session will be moderated by Commissioner Talina Mathews from the Kentucky Public Service Commission, and include presentations from FP&L, Utilidata, Connecticut Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, and Plugged in Strategies.

    View recording
    View brief
    View presentation

  • Webinar: Regulators' Financial Toolbox: Cloud Computing, September 24, 2020 The Regulator’s Financial Toolbox series examines regulatory issues where technology meets bookkeeping. In this 90 minute webinar, speakers will address technology, economic, and accounting considerations for cloud computing. This webinar will explain what cloud computing is (and is not), and will address regulatory considerations for the utility leveraging cloud computing.

    View recording
    View brief
    View presentation

  • Webinar: Earnings Sharing Mechanisms, August 13, 2020 Earnings sharing mechanisms are one way that a commission can manage a utility's actual rate of return and share efficiency gains with customers, although it may reduce the incentive to be efficient. In this state working group session, working group members heard from public utility commission staff from Hawaii, Nevada, and Vermont on how they have approached earnings sharing/adjustment mechanisms.

    View recording
    View presentation

  • Webinar: Multi-Year Rate Plan Considerations and Examples, June 3, 2020 Multi-year rate plans are one way that commissions can reduce the frequency of rate cases by leveraging sophisticated forecasting and design to apply a rate for longer that a 12-month period. In this state working group session, members heard from Commissioner Emeritus David Littell (Maine, currently a senior advisor with the Regulatory Assistance Project), and public utility commission staff from Georgia and Washington.

    View recording
    View presentation

  • Webinar: Performance-Based Regulation Foundations, April 13, 2020 On this webinar, Michael O’Boyle of Energy Innovation discusses key similarities and differences of cost-of-service and performance-based-regulation. Matt McDonnell of Strategen outlines tools for performance-based regulation.

    View recording

  • Webinar: Determining Utility System Value of Demand Flexibility from Grid-Interactive Efficient Buildings, April 6, 2020
    This webinar featured a synopsis of a new State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action) paper. The report focuses on ways current methods and practices that establish the value of distributed energy resource (DER) investments to electric utility systems can be enhanced. These enhancements would improve analyses of the value of demand flexibility in grid-interactive efficient buildings (GEBs) that can provide grid services. The report introduces key valuation concepts that are applicable to demand flexibility and links to other documents that describe these concepts and their implementation in more detail.

    View presenation
    Full report

  • DOE: A Valuation Framework for Informing Grid Modernization Decisions, August 2019 The valuation framework provides a structure for valuation that is deliberate, inclusive, and transparent, documenting the intermediate and final results to ensure clarity, accountability, and repeatability. The document provides guidelines for the framework for valuing grid generation, transmission, and distribution assets—including distributed generation and storage—and the services they provide, as well as policy options commonly evaluated in the context of the electric power grid. The framework is the primary product of DOE’s Grid Modernization project titled “Grid Services and Technologies Valuation Framework Development,” also known by its project number, GMLC 1.2.4. Read the full report, a summary, and a companion standards review report below.

    Full report
    Standards review report
    View recording

  • The Value of Resilience for Distributed Energy Resources: An Overview of Current Analytical Practices, April 2019 Planning for long-duration power interruptions caused by high-impact, low-probability events requires new approaches to power system resilience above and beyond previous hardening efforts. This report examines both regulatory decision-making and non-regulatory cost-benefit analyses to determine if, and how, a value of energy resilience was calculated and applied to proposed investments. Four criteria were used to evaluate the methodologies, including the method’s ease of use, scope of outputs, geographic scalability, and power interruption duration analysis capability. Some of the valuation methodologies examined in the report may be useful in regulatory decision-making; however, none of the methods reviewed met all four criteria for regulator usefulness and usability, and no single method is capable of capturing all regulatory concerns regarding the resilience value of DERs.

    Full report

  • The Interface between Utility Regulation and Financial Markets, November 2018 The purpose of this paper is to review the interfaces between regulators and capital markets to explain the significance of financial market knowledge in public utility regulation. This topic is critical because IOUs finance their investments in utility infrastructure through debt and equity capital obtained from capital/financial markets. This report reviews the significance of financial markets to regulation, describes how key variables (such as cost of capital) are calculated, and describes opportunities for regulators to become educated about relevant financial market activity.

    Full report

  • NARUC Distributed Energy Resources Rate Design and Compensation Manual,
    November 2016 This Manual is organized to provide regulators with a comprehensive understanding of the question of how does DER affect regulation. It lays out a background on the principles of rate design and compensation, the availability and use of new technologies, an explanation of what is DER, and describes a set of certain types of DER. This is to provide a regulator ample background of not only how DER impacts existing regulatory and utility models, but also provides a foundation for considering how to evolve along with this transition. The Manual then describes a variety of rate design and compensation options that a jurisdiction may consider—the options described herein are not the only ones available to a jurisdiction, but are the most prevalent under discussion today. The Manual goes through them laying out the pros and cons of the option, and providing regulators with information to assist them in their consideration. Lastly, the Manual outlines a few practical ways for it to be used, including examples of determining costs and benefits of DER, questions for a regulator to support an investigation into appropriate rate design and compensation for DER, and how to use some of the details in this Manual to support a decision-making process.

    Full report

  • MegaModel Utility Business Models Game

    NARUC has developed an interactive, discussion-based game to teach regulators, legislators, advocates, and other decision-makers about utility business models and regulatory regimes. As a new utility manager, your team can explore performance-based and cost-of-service regulation in vertically integrated and restructured environments.

    During the game, each utility manager team runs a utility for five, two-year planning periods (10 years total). In each period, players can choose to build or contract for generation; build transmission, distribution, and flexibility resources; and institute or respond to new policies. The MegaModel Excel-based platform shows how these decisions impact customer bills, reliability (minutes of outages), earnings per share, and air emissions (carbon dioxide).

    Watch the 7-minute demonstration video and contact us for more information.

  • MegaModel at NARUC Winter Policy Summits, 2019-2020


    In 2019, NARUC provided the MegaModel training to anyone who attended the Winter Policy Summit. In 2020, NARUC provided the MegaModel training to members of the PBR state working group.

  • MegaModel at Legislative Energy Horizon Institute, 2016 - 2020

    NARUC has provided the MegaModel training to attendees of the Legislative Energy Horizon Institute since 2016.


  • NARUC is grateful to the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity, which enables most of the resources and activities described on this webpage.
  • NARUC is grateful to the U.S. Department of Energy, Water Power Technologies Office, which enables the Pumped-Storage Hydro Techno-Economic Valuation Project.

PBR State Working Group Leadership:

  • Commissioner Abigail Anthony, Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission – Chair, Performance-Based Regulation (PBR) State Working Group
  • Commissioner Daniel Scripps, Michigan Public Service Commission -- Vice-Chair, PBR State Working Group.
  • Twenty-six states are members of the PBR state working group.

NARUC staff experts who support these activities: